Carthage قرطاج was Founded by the queen Elissa (or queen Didon, same person!) a princess of Tyre around the 10th century BC! Carthage grew into a vast economic power throughout the Mediterranean Sea, accumulating wealth and influence through its economic prowess. Carthage was a superpower, contemporaneously with the Roman Republic of the 2nd and 3rd Century BC, and was its rival for dominance of the western Mediterranean. This rivalry led to a series of wars known as the Punic Wars, each of which Carthage lost. These losses led to a decline in Carthage’s political and economic strength, mostly due to the harsh penalties imposed on Carthage by Rome as conditions of the cessation of hostilites. The third and final Punic war ended with the complete destruction of the city of Carthage and the annexation of the last remnants of Carthaginian territory by Rome. Although a distinct Carthaginian civilization ceased to exist, remnants of it contributed to later Mediterranean cultures.
While the term Carthaginian is used by many modern writers, many ancient writings used the adjective Punic to describe anything to do with Carthaginian civilization, because of the Latin term Punicus (earlier Poenicus), itself borrowed from Greek, “Phoenicia.”
Romans stayed for centuries, then invided by the Vandals, then Byzantins, then by the Arabs, themselves invaded by French…